Yu Y et al. Sci Rep. 2013 Nov 05. 3(3142): 1-8. - A murine model examining Factor 21™ showed significant reductions in body weight, fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and FGF21 concentration as well as liver FGF21 and TG content in mice fed a high fat diet. Researchers pose that Factor 21™ supplementation may contribute to either increased energy, reduced caloric absorption from the gut, or a combination of both.
- Unpublished internal report. - An in vitro examination of the effects of varying concentrations of Factor 21 on AMPK activity in 3t3-L1 adipocytes compared to AICAR (Acadesine/AICA ribose, a cell permeable activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Results indicated a dose-dependent induction of pAMPK up to 250ug/mL. The bell shaped results were indicative of some receptor induced activation.
- Salminen A and Kai Kaarniranta. Ageing Res Rev. 2012 Apr. 11(2): 230-241. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2011.12.005 - The review explains that emerging studies indicate the responsiveness of AMPK signaling declines with age. The loss of sensitivity of AMPK activation to cellular stress impairs metabolic regulation, increases oxidative stress, and reduces autophagic clearance. These age-related changes activate innate immune responses in the body.
- Kaess BM et al. Eur J Hum Genet. 2010 Dec. 18(12): 1344-1348. EPub 2010 Aug 18. doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2010.130 - FGF21 binds to FGFR1, 2 and 3; this study demonstrates that variations in FGFR2 might be associated with low cholesterol in people of white European ancestry.
- Reznick RM et al. Cell Metab. 2007 Feb 07. 5(2): 151-156. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2007.01.008 - Recent studies suggest that aging-associated reductions in AMPK activity may be an important contributing factor in reduced mitochondrial function and dysregulated intracellular lipid metabolism associated with aging.