- Tanner EA et al. Evaluating the effects of systemic, exercise-induced skeletal muscle injury using whole transcriptome sequencing. J Immunol. 2018. 200(Supplement 1): 42.14 LP-42.14.
Koronyo, Y et al. JCI Insight. 2017. 2(16). DOI: 10.1172/jci.insight.93621 - A proof-of-concept retinal imaging trial showing increased fluorescent intensity in retinal amyloid deposits and the highest brain concentrations of free curcumin obtained with Longvida® Optimized Curcumin. This trial confirmed one more time the ability of Longvida to deliver free curcumin to targeted tissues, more specifically the brain and retina, and to support cognitive and complete neuronal health.
- McFarlin et al. University of North Texas. BBA Clinical. 18 Feb 2016. 5: 72-78. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbacli.2016.02.003 - Collectively, the findings demonstrated that consumption of Longvida® (400mg/day) reduced key inflammatory biomarkers during recovery after exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). The observed improvements in biological inflammation may translate to faster recovery and improved functional capacity during subsequent exercise sessions.
- Santos-Parker JR et al. Geront. Dec 2015. 55(Suppl 2): 195. DOI:10.1093/geront/gnv554.01 - Longvida® administered at a dose of 2000mg/day (n=16), or placebo (n=13) for 12 weeks increased brachial artery flow-mediation dilation (FMDba) by 34% and forearm blood flow in response to incremental brachial artery infusions of acetylcholine (FBFach) by 44% in middle-aged and older (MA/O) adults (45-74 yrs). Findings support supplementation with Longvida improves endothelial-dependent dilation (EDD) in MA/O adults mediated, in part, by an increase in nitric oxide bioavailability.
- Rafii MS et al. Front Behav Neurosci. 2015. 9: 1-11. - Retina, being part of the CNS, has previously been difficult to analyze directly; however, retinal amyloid imaging could now be a tool to demonstrate the presence of plaques in the brain in a non-invasive manner. In line with previous findings, this study supports Longvida® quickly labeling retinal beta amyloid and inducing fluorescent plaque in the neural layers of the retina of humans.
- Cox KH et al. Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University. J Psychopharmacol. May 2015. (Vol 29) No 5: 642-651. DOI: 10.1177/0269881114552744 - This landmark study is one of the first to show a curcumin supplement improves cognitive function in healthy subjects. The trial recruited 60 subjects aged 60-80, and found daily Longvida® (400mg) supplementation led to significant improvements in cognitive function versus the placebo group. Excellent safety was reported, including no dropouts or reports of gastrointestinal upset. Significant improvements were observed in measures for memory, attention, fatigue, stress, and mood in as little as one hour after the first dose.
- Hazarey VK et al. Government Dental College and Hospital. Nagpur, Maharashtra, India. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 2015. 19: 145-52. DOI: 10.4103/0973-029X.164524 - A randomized, controlled clinical trial in 30 clinically diagnosed patients with OSF concluded that Longvida® lozenges could be effective in combination strategies for the management of OSF in comparison to single therapeutic modality. In this study, 15 OSF patients in each group (test & control) were treated with either Longvida® lozenges (400 mg lozenges for total daily dose of 2 g) or Tenovate ointment (clobetasol propionate (0.05%)). The treatment was given for 3 months and follow-up was done for 6 months.
- Frost S et al. Alz Dement. 2014. 10(4): P234-P235. - Retinal Aβ plaques are similar to plaques in the brain. Longvida’s ability to cross the BBB and its affinity for binding to amyloid beta have led to its use as a novel, more cost-effective alternative and imaging tool for screening through the eyes.
- Disilvestro et al. The Ohio State University. Nutr. J. 2012 26; 11:79 doi 10.1186/1475-2891-11-79 - This study is believed to be the first curcumin trial in healthy people to show improvement in a number of key biomarkers related to healthy aging. Randomized, placebo-controlled study in 39 subjects showing excellent safety as well as significant improvements in markers supporting cognitive health, cardiovascular health, and anti-aging versus placebo.
- Khattry et al. Curcumin decreases cytokine levels involved in mucositis in autologous transplant setting: A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic study. American Society of Hematology. Atlanta, GA. 8 Dec 2012. Presentation. - The absorption and efficacy of Longvida in lozenge form in a common oral inflammatory and fibrotic condition was tested compared to the standard of care (clobetasol steroid ointment). Subjects taking Longvida® observed improvements in endpoints significantly better than those receiving steroid treatment; and therapeutic plasma levels were detected through buccal absorption.
- Shah et al. Planta Med. 2012. 48-PH5. - This study concluded that a dose as low as 200mg of Longvida® reaches blood levels of free curcumin required for healthy brain aging. Analyzed blood samples with and without the use of glucuronidase enzyme, finding very little of the glucuronidated form compared to previous studies on curcumin.
- Pharmacokinetics of Longvida®: Dose-concentration correlation. Unpublished, UCLA 2011-2012 - Pilot studies demonstrating absorption and metabolism of Longvida® using various dosage forms.
- Gota et al. Tata Memorial Cancer Centre. J Ag Food Chem. 2010. 58(4): 2095-2099. - Human bioavailability study demonstrating significantly greater plasma levels of free (unconjugated) curcumin after a single dose of Longvida in both healthy and disease states with 65x greater Cmax and >100x greater AUC than 95% curcuminoids.
- Optimized curcumin [Longvida®] binds to amyloid in human CNS after a single dose. Unpublished.
- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of Longvida® Optimized Curcumin in knee: A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, Pune, Ongoing
- A phase 1 open-label prospective cohort trial of curcumin plus tyrosin kinase inhibitors for EGFR-mutant advanced NSCLC. McGill U & Jewish General Hospital, Canada, Ongoing.
- Curcumin and yoga exercise effects in veterans at risk. ULCA, Ongoing.
HUMAN CASE REPORTS
- Longvida cases reports 2008-2013. Verdure Sciences, Unpublished data. - A large base of anecdotal evidence has supported the clinical findings for Longvida’s benefits for a wide range of neurological, inflammatory, and age-related health concerns.
- Does Longvida® provide an alternative to diltiazem for lowering mucopolysaccharide levels in Sanfillippo syndrome? A human case study. Taylor, University of Colorado. 2010. Case Report, Nursing Graduate Thesis. - Longvida® lowered toxic levels of mucopolysaccharides in a 10-year old female with Sanfillippo Syndrome, an effect thought to be related to the calcium channel modulating and anti-inflammatory effects of Longvida.
- Does optimized curcumin [Longvida®] improve quality of life in humans? Tata Memorial Cancer Centre, Mumbai. Preliminary data and case reports. - Pilot study in 11 terminal-stage patients resulted in improvements in quality of life measures including pain, nausea, and appetite, and has led to wide usage of Longvida in patients in India and worldwide.
- Effects of Longvida®: human case studies. Fish, 2010. Case Reports. - Humans exhibit high neuroinflammation and amyloid-beta accumulation from an early age. Widespread physician use of Longvida in children has led to several case reports observing rapid improvement in cognitive function and learning ability.
- Longvida improves cognitive function in patients with neurodegenerative disorders. Unpublished survey data. - 74% of subjects reported improvements in cognitive function in a computerized survey of 58 respondents (patients and caregivers) ages 2 to 90 taking Longvida daily.
- Maiti P et al. Oxidat Med Cell Longev. 2017 Nov 19. Vol 2017(Article ID 9656719). 17pgs. DOI: 10.1155/2017/9656719
- Sundaram JR et al. J Alz D. EPub 2017 Nov 7. 60(4): 1429-1442. DOI: 10.3233/JAD-170093 – The results of this study showed that Longvida® Optimized Curcumin effectively counteracted p25-mediated glial activation and pro-inflammatory chemokine/cytokine production. Further, it reduced the progression of p25-induced tau/amyloid pathology and, in turn, ameliorated induced cognitive impairments.
- Maiti P et al. . Int J Alz Dis. 2017 Apr 16. Vol 2017(Art ID 4164872): 13 pgs. DOI: 10.1155/2017/4164872. -Longvida showed greater permeability when compared to unformulated 95% curcumin and significantly decreased A𝛽-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, phosphorylated tau, and prevented apoptotic (cell) death at lower doses. These conclusions are supported by a previous pK study on Longvida and preclinical studies which showed enhanced bioavailability and permeability of Longvida compared to unformulated 95% curcumin extract, its benefits on neuroinflammation, and the ability to cross the BBB and other tissues in the body in the free form. This study showed additional evidence that Longvida has neuroprotective effects and might be more effective in controlling A𝛽42-exposed neuronal death, relative to 95% curcumin extract.
- Liu W et al. University of Rhode Island. Neurochem Int. 29 Sep 2016. 100: 164-177. - As part of a strategy to help guide the selection and evaluation of medicinal plant candidates for their neuroprotective potential, researchers at the University of Rhode Island developed a Neuroprotective Potential Algorithm (NPA) by evaluating twenty-three standardized and chemically characterized Ayurvedic medicinal plant extracts in a panel of bioassays targeting oxidative stress, carbonyl stress, protein glycation, amyloid beta (Aβ) fibrillation, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, and neuroinflammation. Curcuma longa reported an NPA> 60 supporting its neuroprotective effects.
- Eidenberger T et al. Investigation of the lymphatic transport of solid-lipid curcumin particles (Longvida®) in comparison to curcumin extract in rats. University of Applied Sciences, Upper Austria. Poster in 252nd ACS National Meeting: Philadelphia, PA. 2016 Aug. P55. - Longvida® enters the lymphatic system via chylomicrons; from lymphatic circulation, free curcumin is released into systemic circulation. Five times higher relative bioavailability of free curcumin in plasma and 10-fold higher concentrations of free curcumin in the lymph were detected after administration of Longvida® when compared to the standard curcumin; further confirming lymphatic transport.
- Maiti P et al. Histochem Cell Biol. 2016 Jul. DOI: 10.1007/s00418-016-1464-1 - At nanomolar concentrations, Longvida® was found sufficient for labeling and imaging of Aβ plaques in 5×FAD brain tissue when compared to dietary curcumin and other amyloid-binding dyes.
- Nahar PP et al. University of Rhode Island, J Med Food. July 2015. 18(7): 786-792. DOI:10.1089/jmf.2014.0053 - As part of the Verdure Botanical Active Testing System (VBATS™), Longvida and Longvida® SD (Solution Dispersible) both reduced inflammatory markers NF-kB, TNF-a, and cytokines in immune-compromised cells (macrophages). The improved effects are thought to be due to an exponential increase in the water solubility of Longvida forms versus regular curcumin.
- Absorption of curcumin into lymph and plasma using an enhanced solid-lipid dose delivery form in rats. 2014. Unpublished. - It is well known that curcumin undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism yielding high amounts of curcumin-glucuronide in the blood after oral administration. The plasma and the lymphatic concentrations of curcumin are about 5-fold and 10-fold higher after administration of Longvida when compared to the standard curcumin suspension, respectively. The high amount of curcumin found in the lymphatic fluid after treatment with Longvida serves as explanation for its increased bioavailability when compared to the standard curcumin suspension.
- Longvida effectively modulates the development of reovirus 1/L-induced ARDS in both a prophylactic and therapeutic model. Stony Brook University. 2014. Unpublished. - After treatment with Longvida, beginning on day seven post-inoculation, reovirus 1/L-ARDS mice exhibited a significant reduction in the development of fibrotic lesions.
- Ma et al. J Biol Chem. 2013 Feb 8. 288(6): 4056-65. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M112.393751 - This National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Veterans Administration (VA) funded research at UCLA published in a premier journal, is believed to be one of the first to show a nutritional intervention can remove a highly toxic type of soluble tau in live models, which directly led to memory improvement. Also believed to be the first paper to show a substance can reduce the creation of new tau by modulation of the creation of ‘sticky’ or phosphorylated tau by heat shock protein in vivo. In this study, therapeutic brain levels of free curcumin were also detected after chronic low-dose Longvida dosing.
- Dadhaniya et al. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011 Aug. 49(8): 1834-42. - This study is one of the few published long-term dosing trials looking at the safety of enhanced forms of curcumin. As one part of the Longvida® GRAS determination by an independent panel of scientific experts, this study found that Longvida dosing at ~100x the human equivalent dose for 90-days led to no abnormalities or safety issues.
- Late stage intervention with curcumin (Longvida®) reduces soluble tau oligomers. Sally Frautschy Ph.D. AAIC. 2011. Paris, France. Oral presentation. - In a talk attended by hundreds of expert neuroscientists and Alzheimer’s researchers, UCLA presented data showing low-dose Longvida fed to mice with tau tangles led to improvements in memory, mood, synaptic markers, AMPA glutamate receptors, heat shock protein, and harmful tau oligomers.
- Improved expression of glial-fibrillar acid protein (GFAP) in transgenic mice after dosing of curcumin (Longvida®). National University of Singapore, 2011. Unpublished. - Early data from this ongoing study funded by the Singapore government showed improvement in the brain cell health marker, glial-fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP), after 1 week of feeding Longvida in p25 mice, which are bred to exhibit chronic neuroinflammation and tau abnormalities. GFAP is the key marker for gliosis occurring as a result of brain damage, head trauma, inflammation, and neurodegeneration.
- Frautschy SA et al. 39th Annual Meeting of the Society of Neuroscience. Chicago, IL. October 2009. - This study, NIH and VA funded, found a synergy existed when DHA and Longvida were taken in combination. UCLA authors wrote: “While DHA alone is very effective in vitro and with early interventions in vivo, effective late stage cocktail interventions in AD model mice with significant pre-existing pathology, neuron loss, and cognitive deficits are clearly dependent on the inclusion of the bioavailable lipidated curcumin.”
- Frautschy SA et al. 39th Annual Meeting of the Society of Neuroscience. Chicago, IL. October 2009. - Based on NIH funding, UCLA neuroscientists found that Longvida exhibited the best absorption after comparing different formulations including the use of lipids, antioxidants, nanoparticles, and cyclodextrins. Low-dose Longvida prevented the loss of hippocampal synaptoshysin, suggesting a role for Longvida in neurogenesis, the creation of new brain cells. This study established blood compartments other than plasma that are better indicators of tissue levels of free curcumin after Longvida dosing.
- Begum et al. Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008 Jul. 326(1): 196-208. - Key NIH-funded work and the basis of later work with Longvida, this UCLA-Veterans Administration (VA) study showed that Longvida absorbed into brain within 3-hours after the initial dose, and was the first paper to show that Longvida was better absorbed and more effective in models than unformulated curcumin.
- Frautschy et al. Improving bioavailability of curcumin by solid lipid particle (Longvida®). UCLA, 38th Annual Meeting of the Society of Neuroscience. Washington DC. 2008 Nov 15. Presentation. - Improvements in plasma amyloid, and brain amyloid clearance were observed in transgenic mice after four days of Longvida dosing. Therapeutic brain levels of free curcumin using established LC/MS/MS methodology were found after 2 weeks of feeding with Longvida, reaching levels required.
- Chronic neuroinflammation, progressive neurodegeneration, cognitive decline. University of Western Sydney, Ongoing.
- Bang-Bon Koo et al. Brain Res Bulletin. 2018 Jul 04. DOI: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2018.06.015 - Researchers at Boston University studied the effect of oral doses of Longvida® Optimized Curcumin on cognition in middle-aged rhesus monkeys and reported a delayed pattern of decline in their spatial working memory and motor function. A first of its kind, this long-term (14–18 months) study examined the effect of curcumin treatments using in-vivo imaging assessments to establish the morphological basis for how curcumin acts to improve cognition and motor skills in an aging primate model.
- Moore TL et al. GeroSci. 2017 Dec. 39(5-6): 571-584. EPub 2017 Oct 18. DOI: https://doi.org.10.1007/s11357-017-9998-2.
- Effectiveness of curcumin in modulating chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, endocrine dysfunction, and joint health of the geriatric horse. Gluck Equine Research Center, Awaiting funding.
- Longivda trial in 50 horses monitoring serum amyloid A & feedback from trainers and riders. Ongoing.